Monday, 12 May 2008

Conflicts and Resolutions: Reflection

In terms on CZM identifying all paricipants and conflict pressure points. (See below)

Climate change Vs Coastal defence

Dredging Vs Coastal erosion

Designation Vs Comercial fishing

Tourism Vs Bathing Waters

Infrastructure development Vs Run-Off

Agricultural Vs Waste Managment

Habitat conservation Vs legislative powers

Marine Spatial Planning Vs Navigation

The above list of conflicts is summarised from examination below possible strategy and approaches followed by case study summary.

  1. Consider the coastal area as a dynamic natural landscape.
  2. Make only interventions in the coastal processes and in the coastal landscape if the interests of the society are more important than preserving the natural coastal resource.
  3. Appoint special sections of the coast for natural development.
  4. Demolish inexpedient old protection schemes and re-establish the natural coastal landscape where possible.
  5. Minimise the use of coastal protection schemes, give high priority to the quality of the coast resource, and concentrate on shore protection.
  6. Preserve the natural variation in the coastal landscapes.
  7. Restrict new development/housing close to the coastline in the open uninhabited coastal landscape. Allow only such facilities, which require access to the sea.
  8. Maintain and improve the public access to and along the beach, legally as well as in practice.
  9. Reduce pollution and enhance sustainable utilisation of coastal waters.

The factor of strategy to implementation of Marine Spatial Planning was my focus within the exam and the Devon form/Lyme Bay were the main refrerences sources.

Defintion of Marine Spatial Planning

A marine spatial planning system – a planning system for the sea – to enable strategicand integrated plan-led management of sea use at the UK, national, regional and evenlocal levels. Marine spatial planning must be multi-use planning, and the spatial planareas should not be confined to geo-political boundaries, but based on marineecosystems or other meaningful geographical units. A “regional sea” approach, suchas that being tested through the Defra-led Review of Marine Nature Conservation(RMNC) Irish Sea Pilot Study, may be the most appropriate for marine spatial planning,and will require both a UK-wide and national marine policy as well as marinelegislation.

Personal aspirations after year of study:

The chance to be involved in a world changing aspect of science and management is inspiring and through out the year intrest in all areas of this subject have encouraged me to gain my degree at the university of Plymouth with future plans to gain work experience across the globe.

Possible employment:

Coastal Surveyor : Description

We are looking for energetic, scientifically minded, motivated people with good communication skills. You will be working as part of a new team at the forefront of this work in the UK. Your main functions will be to collect, manage, process and analyse coastal data.

Environmental Consultatiom:

Effects of Human Intervention

Although there are many natural causes of coastal erosion, most of the causes affecting coastal communities are due to human intervention in the transport processes along the coastlines and/or reductions in the supply of sand to the shorelines. This article describes how all kind of human interventions may affect coastal erosion.

Coastal structures interfering with the littoral transport are the most common cause of coastal erosion. The presence of the structure has a series of effects:

Trapping of sand on the upstream side of the structure takes sand out of the sediment budget, thus causing shore erosion along adjacent shorelines. Mostly, of course, on the lee side, but large structures may also cause (initial) erosion on the upstream side.

  • Loss of sand to deep water

    Trapping of sand in entrance channels and outer harbours

The structures, which may cause this type of erosion, are:

  • Groynes and similar structures perpendicular to the shore
  • Ports
  • Inlet jetties at tidal inlets and river mouths detached breakwaters

The accumulation and erosion patterns adjacent to coastal structures depend among other things on:

  • The type of coastline , i.e. the wave climate and the orientation of the shoreline
  • The extent of the structure relative to the width of the surf-zone
  • The detailed shape of the coastal structure

Sediment transport processes

The sediment on the seabed is transported when it is exposed to large enough forces, or shear stresses, by the water movements. These movements can be caused by the current or by the wave orbital velocities or a combination of both, the latter being the most important situation. The relevant parameters for the description of the sediment transport along a shoreline or in a coastal area are therefore the following:

  • The wave conditions at the site and the possible variations over the site plus the adjoining areas

  • The current conditions as well as the variations of these over the area

  • The water-level conditions, i.e. tide, storm surge and wave set-up

  • The bathymetry (the depth variations) in the area

  • The sediment characteristics over the area

  • The sources and sinks of sediment, such as rivers, eroding coasts or tidal inlets

Intergrated coastal zone managment

The aim for the introduction of a marine spatial plan is to primarily enhance and sustain bio-diversity with a relation to renewable energy and other marine activities (tourism). The proposal is to produce management for the present and future long and short term. Therefore precise control on legal licence applications and development within the coastal zone. The factor of conflict between activities will play a major role rather that the requiring of licenses from more than one body.

The scope for marine spatial planning is to put in to place a system for the effective management of the marine environment, taking all stakeholders into consideration including the eco-system. Considering this, many areas of exclusion, for specific industries and habitats for species will be competing for recognition ranging from Ministry of Defence testing zones, oil and gas exclusion zones, fishing no take zones, Marine Nature Reserves (MNR’s) for marine species and habitats, Renewable energy exclusion zones, Special Areas of Conservation (SAC’s) for birds, underwater cables, tourism, cultural heritage, undersea mining and many other areas. As many areas of the U.K marine environment vary and an eco-system approach to the bill is being applied and the legislation will differ to suit the needs of the enforced environment and local industry.

Below image shows a proposal for intergrated Spatial Managment of the Coastal zone.

Marine Protected Areas

Protected areas:

SACs and SPAs
Special protected areas (SPAs) were formed for the location of maritime migratory birds (SACs) are areas of protection for specified habitats and species of EU relevance

Marine nature reserves (MNR)
formed under the wildlife and countryside act 1981. The purpose to protect geological and physiological features along with conservation of Fauna and flora.

Highly protected marine reserves (HPMRs)
Formed in correlation with (NTZ) where all extractive activities are prohibited.

Voluntary Marine conservation areas (VMCA)

These sites are areas in which local communities protect areas with codes produced to protect a specific area.

The convergence of these protected area schemes through relation of such directives into a marine spatial planning using a streamline of a single body may allow an increase in efficiency to allow more sustainable of conservation to produce a effective answer to the protection of marine bio-diversity.

Beach Managment "Contacts"

DR DAVID HARLOW – Senior Project Engineer
Tel: 01202 451389
Fax: 01202 451007

responsible for delivering National policy for flood and coastal defence
Web Link:

responsible for regional inter-authority co-ordination on coastal defence and reporting to DEFRA and other English and Welsh Coastal Groups, as well as conducting local coastal research
Web Link:

encourages the use of adequate and cost effective flood warning systems
encourages the provision of adequate, economically, technically and environmentally sound and sustainable flood and coastal defence measures
to discourage inappropriate development in areas at risk from flooding and coastal erosion
Web Link:

responsible for developing local coastal management policies
Web Link:

network of organisations working for the sustainable management of the coastal and marine environment
Web Link:

HM Government Agency managing European Habitats Directive and International Agreements in the coastal zone, as well as UK enabling legislation and the conservation of dynamic coasts
Web Link:

consultee to Council’s Programme of coastal amangement
Web Link:

National Contigency ( Sea Response )


(Counter pollution operations)

All techniques for cleaning up oil pollution at sea have limitations. The distance of the casualty from shore, the type of oil, weather conditions, currents, and the time taken for resources to reach the scene can significantly affect the effectiveness of different techniques. MCA therefore carefully evaluates the circumstances of each incident before mobilising equipment or other resources for Sea Response deployment.

Friday, 22 February 2008

Environmental Liabilities Directive

Waste Managment

(UNCLOS) and other legal influences

The International Law of the Sea:
The UN convention on the law of the sea (UNCLOS)

The United Nations convention on the law of the sea was adopted in (1982) after years of negotiation. The convention is one in which the marine bill will work in closely in conjunction mainly due the regulation of the Marine bill falling under policies of (UNCLOS). “The view of to regulate practicality of all the marine activities in any area of the ocean”. This obligation provides great legal stand point for the marine bill to coordinate regulation and conservation in and around the 200 nautical mile limit. Due to (UNCLOS) providing these legal basics for such national policy to pursue the protection and sustainable development of the marine environment and its coastal resources the marine bill can run in conjunction.

(UNCLOS) provides that coastal areas such as the United Kingdom to have exclusive jurisdiction for various matters over designated zones of the ocean along their coasts, including coastal zones. The area of jurisdiction usually extends up to 200 nautical miles from the baseline. The Zonation areas concluded below:

The baseline for the territorial waters is defined as the means low water mark along the coast as indicated on charts of (UNCLOS). The basis of this line is that it runs in a straight line stuck between bays and internal waters in the range of 24 nautical miles.

Internal waters:
The waters in which are on the landward side of the baseline from which the breadth of the territorial waters are measured are defined as internal waters. In the relation to (UNCLOS) obligation this area the state has absolute dominion.

Territorial sea:
The dominion of the State still is applicable in the territorial waters (UNCLOS) pt 2
Although foreign vessels have an “innocent right of passage” within this zone. The territorial zone extends from 12 nautical miles from the baseline. This zone allows state however to regulate and encourage to enforce legislation, ocean resources, immigration security and protection from pollution.

Contiguous zone:
The origin of the contiguous zone was first implemented by the (TSC) Territorial Sea Convention but further adjustment was made by (UNCLOS) to 24 nautical miles. The function implemented was to create an adjacent zone to the territorial zone for more efficiency to increase custom and immigration laws.

EEZ (exlusive economic zone)
The EEZ is the zone in which extends out to the 200 nautical mile limit from the baseline. The relevance of this zone provides the state within question the sole right to exploit resources with the zone. (UNCLOS) pt 56. The main differential factor of the

(EEZ) is that opposing states have the ability in territorial waters to move freely through there waters with acceptance of the domain state. The choice to benefit from the natural resources within the zone or connection lines. Example of such exploitation of this (EZZ) is that United Kingdom have jurisdiction over fisheries within the (EEC) “European Economic Community” and can only impose restrictions towards its locally based fishing vessels.

Continental shelf:
UNCLOS Definition:
“The submerged sea bed and subsoil of the submarine areas that extend beyond its territorial sea to the outer edge of the continental margin, or to a distance of 200 nautical miles where the outer edge of the continental margin does not extend up to that distance”
The continental shelf con is located between the margin of the shoreline and shelf fall into deep water. The domain rights of the state still are applicable to this zone, however the specific use is highly re-search based for location of oil and gas. However under pt 76(UNCLOS) the exploitation of natural resources are confined to non-living resources and mineral extraction. The opposition states stand point is that controls are specific to dumping of waste.

Waste Management Licensing Legislation

Laws influencing the Marine Spatial Planning

· Rio Declaration 1992
· United Nations Convention on Law Of the Seas, (UNCLOS)
· Environment Protection Act 1990
· Oslo Paris convention on the North Atlantic. (OSPAR) 1998
· Habitats Directive 1992
· Continental Shelf Act 1964
· Fisheries limits Act 1976 (62)
· Sustainable Development Act
· Water Framework Directive

Wednesday, 13 February 2008

Abstract "Beach Managment"

The implementation of affective beach management plans (BMP’s) within the coastal zone is one of great relevance and importance due to ever increasing pressures from challenges such as: sea level rise, erosion, tourism dependence, and population density in coastal areas. Therefore the objective of a (BMP) in essence is to create a holistic/integrated management scheme in a hope of creating equilibrium between all surrounding marine activities and processes.

However implementation of such schemes is an intricate process in the way that many aspects have to be taken into consideration. Therefore the following documentation looks into the mechanics behind a (BMP), and the methodology used to transpose plans into working protection methods. These methods range from an introduction of erosion preventing structures such as groynes or dredging, to beach safety and awareness, mooring restricted zones and contingency plans.

Therefore taking into consideration all aspects behind a (BMP) in the first section the second part of the document looks into how a (BMP) can be employed to synthesise these variations in issues. The main driver behind this is producing unique objectives, strategies, and implementation of plans for each specific issue or concerns. However this can only occur with cooperation between all stakeholders involved with an emphasis being on compromise and harmony to conclude.

For full Document please dont hesitate contact me at :